Lead pipes and drinking water
Information for home owners and residents
Côte Saint-Luc took over responsibility for water in 2006. It has been testing and monitoring for lead according to Quebec government standards and protocols since 2013.
The Government of Quebec regulates the quality of drinking water and sets the standards. For decades, the maximum standard for lead content in drinking water was 50 parts per billion (ppb). In 2001, to minimize the public’s exposure to lead, the standard for maximum acceptable lead content was revised from 50ppb to 10ppb.
In March 2019, Health Canada recommended that the maximum acceptable amount of lead in water be further reduced to 5ppb. In October 2019 the Quebec government announced that Quebec would become the first province to adopt the recently lowered norms.
As a result of this change, there is a need to expedite the removal of the remaining public water service lines made of lead, as well as to encourage homeowners to replace the private section of the water service lines made of lead.
1. Water filters
The City of Côte Saint-Luc provides two rebates water filters to eligible single-family homes and duplexes built before 1976.
- A one-time rebate of up to $200 towards the purchase and installation of an under-sink water filtration system, or a one-time rebate of up to $200 towards the purchase of a 5-gallon water dispenser
- A $50 rebate towards the purchase of a pour-through pitcher/carafe and/or replacement filters, a faucet mount, a counter-top connected to sink faucet, a refrigerator filter, or a plumbed-in to separate tap or to kitchen sink.
Finally, for those who are unable to purchase a water pitcher and filters themselves, we offer a free pitcher and filter in place of the $50 rebate. Take advantage of these rebates. Until the infrastructure is replaced, filter systems provide the easiest way to mitigate the risks association with lead.
2. Water testing
Between 2021 and 2023, the City is testing 3,200 single-family homes and duplexes where we suspect there may be water service lines made of lead. According to Quebec environment ministry protocols, we are limited to doing the tests between July 1 and September 30.
3. Visual inspection
The City will conduct a pneumatic excavation at every address where a water test suggests there may be a water service line made of lead. The pneumatic excavation verifies the whether the water service line is made of lead or copper. During this pneumatic excavation, a technician drills a hole of approximately 45×45 cm (square) in the ground on either side of the curb stop, which is typically at the property line.
4. Replacement of water service lines
If water testing strongly suggests the presence of a water service line made of lead, and if the visual inspection (pneumatic excavation) confirms it, the next step is to replace the water service line. The City is responsible for replacing the public section, and homeowners are responsible for replacing the private section.
Backgrounder on water service lines
A service line refers to the underground pipe connecting your home’s internal plumbing to the municipal water main. There are two parts to this service line: the municipal portion that goes from the water main under the street to the property line, and the private portion that goes from the property line to the home.
Lead was historically used in service lines and in plumbing fittings and solders. Until 1975, lead was an acceptable material in pipes based on the National Plumbing Code of Canada, so it is more likely to be found in older homes and neighbourhoods. Over time, the corrosion of lead pipes and plumbing can cause lead to leach into drinking water.
Apartment buildings with 8 or more units
Apartment buildings with eight or more units—even older ones—did not use lead service lines. A wider pipe was required and these were not made from lead.
Houses and duplexes
Houses and duplexes part of subdivisions built on or before 1975 likely have lead service lines, and the ones from 1976 onward likely do not. To check to see in what era your subdivision was developed, view the colour coded map below.
Find information on an address
Water test results in Côte Saint-Luc
The following section contains a table with the results of water samples collected from 2013 to 2019 in Côte Saint-Luc. These test results measure lead concentration in the water sample taken from the tap of drinking water in individual homes. The civic number of the household has been removed from the table, however the street is included.
A visual representation of this table superimposed on a map is found below, which illustrates how many tests were done on each block and the number of results from 0 to 5 ppb, 6 to 10 ppb, and 11 ppb and above.
In 2013, cities across Quebec began doing water sample tests for the presence of lead and copper following a directive from the Quebec environment ministry. The water test is done at a tap inside the home and must be done between July 1 and September 30.
At the scheduled appointment time, technicians arrive at the home to be tested. They follow the testing protocol and take water samples, usually from kitchen sinks. The samples are then analyzed at an accredited lab and the results are sent directly to the Quebec environment ministry. A copy of the results is sent to the city, which sends letters to homeowners indicating the levels of lead and copper found during the test. These letters are reviewed by the Quebec public health authority, the Direction régionale de santé publique de Montréal, or DRSP.
While everyone is exposed to trace amounts of lead through air, soil, household dust, food and drinking water, and consumer products, Health Canada states that there is no safe threshold for lead. Montreal’s regional public health department (DRSP) considers that health risks from drinking water are low and different jurisdictions have different maximum acceptable concentrations.
In the table of results, we use the unit of measurement ppb. The unit of measurement mg/L is used by the Quebec government and other agencies. For reference purposes, the table below shows equivalencies between ppb to mg/L and notes different maximum acceptable concentrations in different jurisdictions.
|Parts per billion||Milligrams per litre||Note|
|10 ppb||0.010 mg/L||Maximum acceptable concentration (Quebec, 2001–2019; World Health Organization, current)|
|6.7 ppb||0.0067 mg/L||Average concentration of lead from initial water samples in Côte Saint-Luc (2013 to 2019) at 238 single-family homes and duplexes in areas where the city suspect there are water service lines made of lead|
|5 ppb||0.005 mg/L||Maximum acceptable concentration (Quebec, 2020 onward)|
|1 ppb||0.001 mg/L|
The following is a summary of key statistics from water testing done in Côte Saint-Luc between 2013 and 2019.
- Individual households tested: 238
- Tests done including re-tests at same household: 309
- Average lead concentration at initial test of 238 households: 6.7 ppb
- Percentage of initial test results from < 1 to 5 ppb: 39%
- Percentage of initial test results from < 1 to 10 ppb: 84%
Test results for lead concentrations per block
The map shows the number of tests per block and the test result range from 2013 to 2019. The number inside the circle refers to how many water tests on that block were within that range. For instance, a green cicle with a 3 inside means that there were three water tests on that block measuring between < 1 to 5 ppb.
Table of results
These test results measure lead concentration in the water sample taken from the tap of drinking water in individual homes. The civic number of the household has been removed from the table, however the street is included.
Lead in drinking water: public health perspective
On Thursday, December 12, 2019, Dr. David Kaiser of Montreal Public Health spoke in Côte Saint-Luc about lead in drinking water. This video is a summary of the event including the answers to questions from the audience.
Recommendations for homes with lead service lines
- Use a water filter pitcher, a tap filter, or a pipe filter beneath your sink. These devices must be NSF/ANSI 53 certified for the removal of lead, and manufacturer’s instructions must be followed. The City offers rebates on filters.
- If the homeowner’s section of the water service line is made of lead, then the homeowner should replace it with one made of copper.
- Check the plumbing parts or fittings inside your home, such as solder or faucets or valves as they may also contain lead.
- Until you replace your water service line or use water filters, do the following to minimize the concentration of lead: let your tap water run for a few minutes after it becomes cool, always use cold water to cook, and clean your tap aerator (strainer) regularly. Please note that boiling tap water does not eliminate lead, as lead does not evaporate, nor is it destroyed through boiling.
To learn more, visit the following resources:
- Government of Quebec
Lead in drinking water: what can you do? (PDF) [In French only]
- Government of Canada
- City of Montreal
The water network from the filtration plant to your tap
The drinking water produced by the City of Montreal is safe. It is tested at the water filtration plant. Côte Saint-Luc also tests it 30 times a month as it flows under our streets. However, traces of lead can enter the drinking water just before entering your home, or inside your home. The following overview explains how water gets from the filtration plant to your tap, the places where lead can get into the water, and which households are most likely to be affected.
Water filtration plant
The water you pour from your tap starts at the Atwater and Charles J. Des Baillets Filtration Plants, which supply water for most Montreal boroughs, Montreal East, Westmount, Côte Saint-Luc, Montreal West, Town of Mount Royal and Hampstead. The plants continuously test the water for things like E. coli to ensure the water is safe. It also tests for the presence of lead. According to its 2016 report (PDF), there is less than 1 ppb of lead in drinking water at the filtration plant. It is then pumped to a series of reservoirs.
Gravity pulls the water through a series of large underground pipes called water mains. These water mains are usually made of cast iron. Most importantly to the current discussion, water mains are not made of lead. At this stage along the way to your home, there are little to no traces of lead in the water.
Water service line pipes
After its journey from the water filtration plant, through the water mains, the water now enters your water service line. This is the pipe that carries water from the water main under the street to your home. The water service line is one of the places where lead can enter your drinking water, but only if the service line pipe is made of lead on the private section, public section, or both sections.
According to a statistical analysis done by the City of Montreal, it estimates that approximately 1,800 single-family homes and duplexes built before 1970 in Côte Saint-Luc have a water service line made of lead. To put this number in context, approximately 14,900 households (ie, apartments and houses built from 1970 onward) do not have a water service line made of lead.
Based on water tests done at approximately 238 households in Côte Saint-Luc between 2013 and 2019, approximately 16.6 percent of homes with water service lines made of lead had levels of lead above the 2001 to 2019 norm of 10 ppb. The average level at all households tested was 6.7 ppb.
Pipes inside your single-family home, duplex, or apartment
After flowing through the water service line, the water flows through the pipes inside your home, behind your walls, and eventually through the faucet and aerator. These are other potential sources of lead.
What this means is that even if you live in a subdivision built after the early- to mid-1970s, or in an apartment building with a water service line made of copper or cast iron, there is still a chance that there could be some level of lead in your drinking water because of the plumbing inside your house or apartment.
- The water leaving the Atwater and Charles J. Des Baillets Filtration Plants is safe with constant testing and less than 1 ppb of lead.
- The water flows through cast iron water mains under Côte Saint-Luc, which are not made of lead.
- The water flows through a water service line under your lawn, which connects the water main to the water valve in your home. Between 10 percent to 19 percent of households have a water service line which may be made of lead.
- In some cases, the water that flows into houses, duplexes, and apartments passes through pipes, fittings, and faucets that may be made of lead. There is no estimate for how many households are affected. Homeowners need to consult a plumber.
See Health Canada’s Sources of lead in drinking water .